HELMINTHOLOGIA, 36, 2: 63 - 67, 1999

The effect of immunostimulant therapy on infection with Toxocara canis in dogs


Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases, Department of Animal Pathology, Veterinary Faculty, Santiago de Compostela University, 27071-Lugo, Spain, E-mail: dibapa@lugo.usc.es


The effect of procodazol on variations in excretion of Toxocara canis eggs and the number of adult worms, leukocyte pattern, and IgG systemic antibody responses were studied in two groups of puppies infected with embryonated T. canis eggs. Animals of G-1 remained without treatment, and dogs of G-2 received a daily immunostimulant treatment with procodazol, two weeks before and two weeks after the infection. The prepatent period was 5-9 weeks in group 1, and 4-8 weeks in group 2. There was no correlation between the results of ELISA test and the number of eggs or the number of T. canis adults. The values of percentages of eosinophils were significantly higher in infected puppies, especially in G-1, during the migration phase of larvae, whereas lymphocytes and neutrophils decreased. IgG titres increased during the course of infection, and the animals of G-2 reached more marked response than the G-1 ones.


HELMINTHOLOGIA, 36, 2: 69 - 74, 1999

Effect of Ascaris suum reinfection on immunoreactivity in lambs


University of Veterinary Medicine, Košice, Slovak Republic; 1Parasitological Institute of SAS, Kosice, Slovak Republic; 2College of Veterinary Medicine, North Caroline State University, Releigh, USA


To estimate the effect of immunoreactivity after a long-term infection, lambs were daily infected with 100 (group A) or 1000 (group B) infective Ascaris suum eggs for 23 days of the experiment (56 days). The infection showed significant functional activity of T cells during 14-28 days in group B and 35-42 days in group A of the experiment. The functional activity of B cells lasts longer (14-42 days in groups A and B) in comparison to T cell activity. The production of specific antibodies was significant in group B, with the highest titre on day 42 of the experiment. The significant decrease of CD8 T cells at the beginning of the experiment and the increase of these cells in the second half of the experiment demonstrates their important role in the killing of larval parasite. The significant decrease in the leucocytes and lymphocytes at the last examination appears to reflect a decreased proliferation or an increased apoptosis after long-term antigenic stimulation.


HELMINTHOLOGIA, 36, 2: 75 - 78, 1999

Distribution of the activity of triacyloglycerol lipase in the tissues of female Ascaris suum (Nematoda)


Division of General Biology, Institute of Biology and Environmental Protection, Teachers' Training College, ul. Zolnierska 14, 10-561 Olsztyn, Poland


The activity of triacylglycerol lipase was identified using an enzymatic method in the fluid from the pseudocoelom, muscles, cuticle, reproductive system and four sections (A-D) of the intestine of female Ascaris suum. The highest activity of the enzyme was found in the intestine of A. suum (2.81 ± 1.11 u/mg). The activity of lipase in the posterior sections of the intestine C (4.70 ± 2.63 u/mg) and D (4.21 ± 2.63 u/mg) was almost twice that of the anterior sections A (1.61 ± 0.74 u/mg) and B (2.45 ± 0.31 u/mg). In the fluid from the body cavity the activity of the enzyme was 0.55 (0.21 u/mg, in the ovaries 0.32 ± 0.13 u/mg, in uterus and oviduct 0.10 ± 0.06 u/mg and in the eggs 0.20 ± 0.07 u/mg. The activity of lipase in muscles and cuticle of the parasite was low.


HELMINTHOLOGIA, 36, 2: 79 - 81, 1999

Parallel analysis of some heavy metals concentrations in the Anguillicola crassus (Nematoda) and the European eel Anguilla anguilla (Osteichthyes)


Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry, Zemedilská 1, 613 00 Brno, Czech Republic; 1Institute of Vertebrate Biology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Kvetná 8, 603 65 Brno, Czech Republic; 2Institute for Service and Business, Department of Ecology and Chemistry, 679 01 Skalice nad Svitavou, Czech Republic


Adult specimens (males and females) of the swimbladder nematode Anguillicola crassus were collected from eels in the Vranov Valley Reservoir (Czech Republic), and examined for Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni concentrations using two different methods of atomic absorption spectrometry. The concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni in the nematode body tissues were higher than those obtained from muscle samples of infected eels. The heavy metal accumulation capacity of A. crassus males was higher than that of females.


HELMINTHOLOGIA, 36, 2: 83 -89, 1999

Ultrastructure of primary embryonic envelopes in Proteocephalus longicollis (Cestoda: Proteocephalidea)


Parasitological Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Protifasistickych bojovnikov 5, 040 01 Kosice, Slovak

Republic. Phone: +421 95 6222787; Fax: +421 95 6331414; E-mail: brunan@saske.sk


Ultrastructure of fertilized oocytes of the tapeworm Proteocephalus longicollis (Zeder, 1800) and development of embryonic envelopes during cleavage and early preoncospheral stages were examined by transmission electron microscopy. The developing embryo is surrounded with three basic envelopes. The outermost envelope is the capsule, which consists of two closely apposed membranes. The appearance of the capsule changes during the more advanced stages. The outermost envelope encloses outer and inner embryonic envelopes, each of which is syncytial. Vitelline cells take part in formation of embryonic envelopes. The outer envelope contains numerous ribosomes, polysomes, cisternae of granular endoplasmic reticulum, large lipid droplets and rosettes of a-glycogen. The inner envelope is formed by three mesomeres. In the inner envelope, abundant ribosomes and some mitochondria are present together with the large nuclei of mesomeres. Differences in the fine structure of the primary embryonic envelopes of P. longicollis and other cestodes are discussed.


HELMINTHOLOGIA, 36, 2: 91 - 96, 1999

Relationship between faecal egg output and the expression of haematological parameters in Polish Wrzosówka ewes naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes


W. Stefanski Institute of Parasitology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warszawa; 1Department of Genetics and Animal Breeding, Warsaw Agricultural University, Przejazd 4, 05-840 Brwinow, Poland


Expression of parasitological and haematological parameters in Polish Wrzosówka sheep was analysed in relation to prevailing weather conditions over two years (1996-1997). Ewes were naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. Anthelmintics were used twice in May and December 1996. Different patterns in the mean EPGs corresponded to the pattern of the cummulative total EPG in both years. Domination by Haemonchus contortus or Trichostrongylus spp. L3 larvae in nematode species cultured from faeces depended on the level of faecal egg output. PCVs detected in ewes were repeatable in the two years of the study. Moreover PCVs correlated negatively with EPGs when the highest percentage of L3 Haemonchus contortus was cultured from faeces. The domination of this species in larval populations was observed at the end of a period characterized by higher temperature and rainfall. There were no significant changes in the white blood cell composition, except eosinophils in both years. Analysis of variance assessed the significance of differences among means of EPG and PCV in both years of the study. The effect of year and month on each of measured variables was noticed using general linear model procedure.


HELMINTHOLOGIA, 36, 2: 97 - 99, 1999

The prevalence of natural infection with gastrointestinal and lung   nematodes in goats during grazing season

A. Borecka, J. Gawor

W. Stefanski Institute of Parasitology PAS, Twarda St. 51/55, 00-818 Warsaw, Poland


The prevalence of natural infection with gastrointestinal and lung nematodes in goats based on faecal samples examination during grazing season was the aim of the study. Eighteen female aged 3.5 years and twenty kids (approximately 6 months old) were examined monthly from May to October. Prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes in adult goats was 100 % during grazing season. Due to a high infection level in July (mean number of EPG 2465.5 and 3190.0 in adults and kids, respectively), all goats were treated with 1.5 % levamizole (0.75 mg/kg). However, the drug had little effect on reducing faecal egg counts in both groups. On the other hand it significantly reduced lung worm larvae in the kids. All kids were infected from July to October. The highest intensity of infection in both groups was observed in September (mean number of EPG 3120.0 and 4223.1 in adults and kids, respectively). Muellerius capillaris was the only lung nematode species found. The highest prevalence (100 %) and intensity (LPG 11.2) in adult goats was recorded in May. In kids, maximum prevalence (80 %) and intensity (LPG 45.6) of lungworms was detected in July.  Differences in course of infection with both, gastrointestinal and lung nematodes, in adults and kids was probably due to the kids being parasite-free prior to the in- fection on the pasture.


HELMINTHOLOGIA, 36, 2: 101 - 103, 1999

First record of Petasiger grandivesicularis Ishii, 1935 (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) in Germany


1Department of Zoology, The Natural History Museum, London SW7 5BD, UK; 2Permanent address: Department of Biodiversity, Central Laboratory of General Ecology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 2 Gagarin Street, Sofia 1113, Bulgaria, e-mail: akk@ecolab.bas.bg


A new geographical record of Petasiger grandivesicularis Ishii, 1935 is reported from the little grebe, Tachybaptus ruficollis (Aves: Podicipedidae) in Gemany. The material previously reported as P. neocomense Fuhrmann, 1927 is redescribed and figured. Comparisons with previous documented reports adds to the known range of the intraspecific variation of P. grandivesicularis.


HELMINTHOLOGIA, 36, 2: 105 - 110, 1999

Echinococcus multilocularis in Slovak Republic: The first record in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes)


Parasitological Institute SAS, Hlinkova 3, 040 01 Kosice, Slovak Republic; 1Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Palackeho 1-3, 612 42 Brno, Czech Republic; 2Department of Tropical Medicine, III Clinic of Infectious and Tropical Medicine, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Bulovka Hospital, Studnickova 7, 128 00 Prague 2, Czech Republic; 3Institute of Vertebrate Biology, AS CR, Kvetná 8, 603 65 Brno, Czech Republic


Echinococcus multilocularis was found for the first time in the Slovak Republic in 6 of 56 feaces of red foxes (Vulpes vul- pes) (prevalence 10.7%). Echinococcus spp. coproantigens were detected using sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Ag-ELISA) in 6 of 28 red foxes (positivity 24. 4% ). The gravid proglottides of E. multilocularis or cestode eggs of the Taenia-type were detected in five samples and eggs alone in one sample. The species of E. multilocularis was de- tected in three samples and comfirmed by using the nested PCR. This finding in the Slovak Republic indicated the risk of the spread of this severe helminthic zoonosis.


HELMINTHOLOGIA, 36, 2: 111 - 117, 1999

Synopsis of cestodes in Slovakia V. Dilepididae, Dipylidiidae and Paruterinidae


Parasitological Institute SAS, Hlinkova 2, 040 01 Kosice, Slovak Republic; * Department of Parasitology, Charles University, Vinicna 7, 128 44 Prague, Czech Republic


Synopsis has provided data on 49 tapeworm taxa of the families Dilepididae, Dipylidiidae and Paruterinidae, their hosts (birds, rodents, insectivorous, carnivorous), localities and the occurrence on the territory of Slovakia since 1956. A great number of species listed in this synopsis are scarce, mainly found in nowadays endangered avian hosts. The most frequently occurring species were Anomotaenia. microphallos, A. stentorea, Dictymetra discoidea, Dilepis undula, D. unilateralis (also as larvae in carp fishes), Paricterotaenia porosa, Dipilidium caninum and Anonchotaenia globata. Three species, namely Anonchotaenia magniuterina Ryšavý, 1957, Krimi rallida Macko, 1966 and Birovilepis spasskayae (Birová 1967) have originally been described from Slovakia.


HELMINTHOLOGIA, 36, 2: 119 - 121, 1999

Research note

A simple differentiation of two genera Brachylecithum and Lutztrema (Trematoda: Dicrocoeliidae) based on Borax carmine and Astra blue staining method


Moravian Station of Ornithology, Comenius museum, Horni nam. 1, 751 52 Prerov, Czech Republic; 1Department of Zoology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlarská 2, 611 37, Brno, Czech Republic

During the revision of liver-flukes of the family Dicrocoeliidae, parasitising birds of the order Passeriformes from the holoarctic region, we have found that the common morphological determination criteria used in the past, such as the shape of the body and the position of inner organs, are very inconsistant. This variability can be attributed to age of the parasite and its location within the host. Furthermore the abundance of parasites and the method of staining used may give false identification (Macko, 1969; Sitko, 1994; Sitko, 1995). Thus, it is possible to find flukes in one host that can be classified into one or several genera. Also, opinions differ on how to classify members of the family Dicrocoeliidae and often the same species of fluke is placed into several genera (Yamaguti, 1971; Panin, 1984).