HELMINTHOLOGIA, 40, 4: 187-194, 2003

Cellular immune reactions of mice with alveolar echinococcosis after albendazole therapy.

Z. Borosková1, E. Dvoroznáková1, Z. Sevcíková2

1Parasitological Institute SAS, Košice, Slovak Republic, 2University of Veterinary Medicine, Košice, Slovak Republic


Therapy of alveolar echinococcosis with benzimidazole derivates can induce changes in immune system. Therefore the effect of albendazole on selected immunological parameters in mice infected intraperitoneally with Echinococcus multilocularis protoscoleces was observed. Albendazole was administered at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) twice a week from week 5 to 10 after the infection. The proliferative response of splenic T and B lymphocytes to concanavalin A and lipopolysaccharide in infected hosts was inhibited nearly during the whole time of the observation (182 days). The restoration of the proliferative activity suppressed with the parasite was found after the application of albendazole (ABZ). The numbers of CD4+ T subpopulation in spleen was markedly accumulated in two peaks until after the therapy termination. The numbers of CD8+ T subpopulation only moderately increased after the last dose of an anthelmintic drug. The production of superoxide anion in peritoneal macrophages, which was inhibited during the therapy, started sharply to increase until the last dose of a drug and exceeded the values of untreated hosts. In comparison with untreated and infected mice, the concentration of serum cytokine IFN-g (Th1 immune response) increased markedly for long time during and after the therapy. Whereas Th2 response, represented by IL-5, was suppressed during the therapy. The significant and long-time rise of the IL-5 concentration was recorded until 2 weeks after the therapy termination in comparison with untreated and infected group. After the therapy the E. multilocularis metacestode cyst weight in hosts decreased nearly by the third and the number of protoscoleces in cysts was significantly reduced in comparison with infected mice without the ABZ application. The next rise of the cyst biomass weight was found in 8 weeks after the ending of therapy. The present results suggest that therapy of the infected mice restored of the function activity of the immunocompetent cells, increased the metabolic activity macrophages and supported of Th1 immune response.


HELMINTHOLOGIA, 40, 4: 195-199, 2003

Preliminary evaluation of maternotoxic effect of ascaris trypsin inhibitor in mice

  J. BLaszkowska

Department of Medical Biology and Parasitology, Medical University of Lodz,  90-647 Lodz, Hallera Place 1, Poland; E mail katbiol@poczta.onet.pl


Intraperitoneal administration of Ascaris trypsin inhibitor (0.3-0.8 g/kg/day) at a late stage of organogenesis  (8-12 days of gestation) disturbs the course of mouse pregnancy. Low doses of trypsin inhibitor  (0.3-0.6 g/kg/day) significantly decreased the number of live fetuses per litter and increased the number of fetal resorption. Symptoms of maternal toxicity that occurred after administrating the highest dose of inhibitor (0.6-0.8 g/kg/day) to pregnant mice included: decreased body weight gain as compared with control, vaginal hemorrhage, intrauterine resorption of litters, abortions, altered behavior of animals immediately after injection and death.  There is a linear interrelationship between the logarithm of inhibitor doses and mortality of pregnant mice. LD50 value of the inhibitor for female was 0.541 g/kg /day (confidence interval: 0.484-0.605 g/kg/day).


HELMINTHOLOGIA, 40, 4: 201-209, 2003

Ultrastructure of the tegument of the metacercaria of Proctoeces maculatus (Digenea: Fellodistomidae)

J. Abdul-Salam, M. Al-Taqi, B. S. Sreelatha

Department of Biological Sciences, Kuwait University, P. O. Box 5969, Safat 13060,Kuwait,E-mail: jsalam@kuc01.kuniv.edu.kw


  The ultrastructure of the tegument of the unencysted meta-cercaria of Proctoeces maculatus (Digenea: Fellodistomi-dae) in the renal cavity of the marine gastropod Priotro-chus obscurus has been studied by scanning and transmis-sion electron microscopy. The basic structural organization of the metacercarial tegu-ment resembles that established for other digeneans, though some unique features were observed. The surface tegument is devoid of spines, folded into a series of concentrically arranged ridges, and covered with secretory ve-sicles and exocrine globules. The tegumental syncytium is thick and densely packed with three types of secretory inclusions produced by a single subtegumentary cell. The evidence of degranulation and exocytosis of the secretory inclusions at the apical plasma membrane suggests their involvement in synthesis and maintenance of the membra-ne and surface glycocalyx. The second category of the sec-retory materials detected in the tegument is produced by the subtegumentary gland cells and may contribute to the exocrine globules discharged on the tegumental surface. The detection of prominent residual bodies in the syncytial and cellular components of the tegument probably indicates a high rate of cellular turnover. In the absence of a protective cyst, the tegument appears to fulfill a protective role against varying chemical and physical conditions encountered in the host renal cavity and apparently contribu-tes little to the parasite nutrient uptake.


HELMINTHOLOGIA, 40, 4: 211-215, 2003

Changes in LD50 value in an in vitro larval development test for the detection of  susceptibility to a thiabendazole, levamisole, morantel and pyrantel in Oesophagostomum dentatum


Parasitological Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Hlinkova 3, 040 001 Košice, Slovak Republic, E-mail:varady@saske.sk


  Changes in LD50 values using a larval development test to assess thiabendazole (ovicidal and larvicidal effect), levamisole, pyrantel  and morantel susceptibility/resistance were monitored over time following a single infection with 8000 L3 of a susceptible isolate of the nodular worm of pigs Oesophagostomum dentatum.  Faecal samples were collected twice weekly from 24 to 66 days post infection. With all four anthelmintics the LD50 values during patent period were initially low, increased to peak around 35-50 days post infection and then declined to lower levels again. The coefficient of variation in thiabendazole (ovicidal and larvicidal effect), levamisole, pyrantel  and morantel was of about equal value of: 44.4, 23.1, 32.6, 36.9, and 34.9 %.


HELMINTHOLOGIA, 40, 4: 217-226, 2003

Spatial and temporal analysis of the Echinococcus multilocularis occurrence in the Slovak Republic


Parasitological Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Hlinkova 3, 040 01 Košice, Slovak Republic, E-mail: miterpak@saske.sk; *Slovak Environmental Agency, Tajovského 26, 974 01, Banská Bystrica, Slovak Republic


  A total of 2,130 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) were captured and examined for intestinal infection with Echinococcus multilocularis in the period of 2000-2002 across the whole territory of the Slovak Republic. The total prevalence of E. multilocularis determined by necropsy and coproantigen test has been 30.7 %. The prevalence increased from 24.8 % in 2000 to 32.8 % in 2002. During the whole surveyed period, the highest prevalence rates were always recorded in the regions neighbouring Poland and the Czech Republic. The mean worm burden was 1, 128 tapeworms (range 1-40 000). No significant differences in prevalence were observed between foxes captured in different seasons (spring/summer and autumn/winter). Likewise, the sex of red foxes had no effect on the E. multilocularis prevalence according to our findings. The highest prevalence of infected red foxes was recorded at 200-400 m above sea level, in areas with a high proportion of arable land, woodlands and areas with natural vegetation. A possible influence of various factors on the potential spread of this zoonosis is discussed.


HELMINTHOLOGIA, 40, 4: 227-232, 2003

Relative concentrations of four heavy metals in the parasites Protospirula muricola (Nematoda) and Inermicapsifer arvicanthidis (Cestoda) in their definitive host silvery mole-rat (Heliophobius argenteocinereus: Rodentia)

V.Baruš, F. Tenora1, R. Sumbera2

Institute of Vertebrate Biology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Květná 8, 603065 Brno, Czech Republic; 1Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry, Zemědělská 1, 613 00 Brno, Czech Republic; 2Department of Zoology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of South Bohemia, Branišovská 31, 370 05, České Budějovice, Czech Republic, E-mail: sumbera@tix.bf.jcu.cz


The concentrations of four heavy metals were determined in the nematode Protospirula muricola, the tapeworm Ine-rmicapsifer arvicanthidis and in the liver and in the muscle of infected and uninfected host the silvery mole-rat (Heliophobius argenteocinereus) from Malawi. There were no differences in heavy metal burdens between uninfected ro-dents and infected hosts. The mean burden of lead was higher in nematode and tapeworm parasites than in their host tissues. Concentrations of zinc and copper were higher in the parasites compared to the concentration in the host tissues, with exception being the differences between concentration in nematodes and in the liver of hosts for zinc, and between tapeworms and in the liver of hosts for copper. For cadmium, the only burden in tapeworms was a higher in the liver of hosts. The degree of heavy metal burdens in these rodents parasites were relatively low compa-red to that of acanthocephalan and tapeworm parasites of fishes and birds.


HELMINTHOLOGIA, 40, 4: 233-235, 2003

Sychnotylenchus mutici Massey, 1974 from the Slovak Republic


Parasitological Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Hlinkova 3, 040 01 Košice, Slovak Republic, 1Instituto per la Protezione delle Piante, Sez. di Bari, C.N.R. - Via Amendola 165/A 70126 Bari, Italy.


Selected morphometrics with diagnostic value for Sychnotylenchus spp. (excretory pore location, quadricolumella, vulva and anus position, male presence and its terminal body features, etc.), are presented here from a bisexual Sychnotylenchus sp.  The specimens of nematodes used in this study have been observed and recovered from beetle galleries of dead Carpinus betulus L. trees in Carpineto-Fagetum forest type in the locality of Trebejov near the city of Košice in the eastern region of Slovakia.  The nematode species has been identified as S. mutici. The species was originally described in the USA by  Massey (1974).  It is the first report of this species from Europe, thus expanding the borders of its geographical distribution.


HELMINTHOLOGIA, 40, 4: 237-243, 2003

Comparison of soil nematode communities in three forest types on sand and clay coal-mining dumps in Germany and Czech Republic

  L. HánEl

Institute of Soil Biology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na sádkách 7, CZ-370 05 České Budějovice, Czech Republic; E-mail: hanel@upb.cas.cz


Nematode communities were studied in alder, oak and pine plantations, about 30-year-old, on sand coal-mining spoils at Cottbus in Germany and on clay coal-mining spoils at Sokolov, Czech Republic. Mean abundance of nematodes varied from 326 to 772 x 103ind.m-2 and biomass from 286 to 795 mg.m-2. The genera Plectus, Acrobeloides, Filenchus and Aphelenchoides were common in all localities. The genera Rhabditis, Wilsonema, Tylencholaimus, Cephalenchus, Coslenchus, Rotylenchus, Aporcelaimellus, Eudorylaimus, and Prionchulus showed particular preferences for individual sites. Nematode faunas in alder and oak plantations were more affected by region than nematode faunas in pine plantations. Maturity Index and trophic diversity of nematode communities were greater in tree plantations on clay spoils than on sand spoils. Taxonomic diversity of nematode communities was greater in deciduous forest plantations on sand spoils than on clay spoils.


HELMINTHOLOGIA, 40, 4: 245-246, 2003

Research Note

The first record of Allocreadium transversale (Rudolphi, 1802) (Digenea, Allocreadiidae) from cobitid  fishes of Poland

M. Popiołek, J. Okulewicz1, J. Kotusz2

Department of Zoology and Ecology, Agricultural University of Wrocław, Kożuchowska 5b, 51-631 Wrocław, Poland, E-mail: popiolek@ozi.ar.wroc.pl; 1Department of Biology and Medical Parasitology, Medical University of Wrocław, Mikulicza-Radeckiego 9, 50-368 Wrocław, Poland; 2Museum of Natural History, Wrocław University, Sienkiewicza 21, 50-335 Wrocław,  Poland


In Poland, Allocreadium transversale (Rudolphi, 1802) in three cobitid fishes (Cobitis taenia, C. elongateides and Misgurnus fossilis) was found. As the species is new to the Polish parasitofauna, a description, measurements and fi-gure are presented.