HELMINTHOLOGIA, 38, 2:57-61, 2001

Characterization of the proteinases released by infective larvae of Uncinaria stenocephala during in vitro exsheathment and incubation

G. Kotomski, H. Wedrychowicz*

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw Agricultural University, Grochowska 272, 03-849 Warsaw, Poland; E-mail: Wedrychowicz@alpha.SGGW.waw.p

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw Agricultural University, Grochowska 272, 03-849 Warsaw, Poland


Proteinases released by infective (L3) larvae of Uncinaria stenocephala during exsheathment and in vitro maintenance were characterized on the basis of molecular size and the sensitivity to specific proteinase inhibitors using gelatine substrate gels. The larvae were stimulated to terminate the second moult by CO2. Serine and metalloprotease activities predominated both in the medium in which the larvae exsheathed and in excretory-secretory products of parasitic L3. It is suggested that these enzymes not only facilitate discarding of the sheath and feeding of the larvae but play an important role in evasion strategy generated by the L3 of U. stenocephala to counteract the host response.


HELMINTHOLOGIA, 38, 2:63-66, 2001

Heavy metal concentrations in tapeworms Diploposthe laevis and Microsomacanthus compressa parasitizing aquatic birds


Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry, Zemědělská 1, 613 00 Brno, Czech Republic, e-mail: kracmar@mendelu.cz; 1Institute of Vertebrate Biology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Květná 8, 603 65 Brno, Czech Republic, e-mail: prokes@brno.cas.cz; 2Moravian Ornithological Station, Bezručova 10, 751 72 Přerov, Czech Republic


Two parasite-host systems tapeworms Diploposthe laevis and Microsomacanthus compressa vs. final hosts aquatic birds Aythya ferina and A. nyroca were analysed by atomic absorption spectrometry for heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni) concentrations and compared with those found in muscles and liver of the final hosts. The ability of adult tapeworms to accumulate different concentrations was greater than that of their hosts‘ tissues. The value ratios of the heavy metal concentration in D. laevis, (2.0-3.6) and M. compressa (2.3-22.3), respectively were higher than those in their final hosts’ tissues. The percentage proportion rank of individual heavy metals in the combined sample of strobilae of the above tapeworm species and in the sample of their hosts´ tissues indicates the highest proportion in Pb (40.6-57.9 %) followed by that in Ni, Cr and Cd, except for the highest proportion of Cr in the liver of A. nyroca, followed by successively decreasing concentrations of Pb, Ni and Cd.


HELMINTHOLOGIA, 38, 2:67-74, 2001

Ultrastructure of the female genital system in Proteocephalus torulosus and P. exiguus (Cestoda: Proteocephalidea)

J. V. Korneva

Institute for Biology of Inland Waters, Russian Academy of Science, 152742, Borok, Yaroslavl, Russia; E-mail:janetta@ibiw.yaroslavl.ru


The fine structure of the female reproductive organs and ducts in the cestodes Proteocephalus torulosus nad P. exiguus were studied by transmission electron microscopy. The vitelline follicles contain cells in various stages of development; vitellocytes and the periphery of the follicles are enclosed by a cytoplasmic nuclear syncytium which build up a reticulate system. The ovary contain germ cells and the autophagous material. The epithelium of the oviduct has apical folds with numerous arranged microtubules. Microtrichial polymorphism in P. torulosus was found in the lining of the vagina. The seminal receptacle in lined with syncytial nuclear epithelium and is not covered with microtriches. The comparison of our results and the data which reported for other species is given. It is supposed, that there is a general scheme of the reproductive system organization in proteocephalidean cestodes.


HELMINTHOLOGIA, 38, 2:75-79, 2001

Parasites found in faeces of Indian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Thailand following treatment with mebendazole, with observations on Pfenderius papillatus (Cobbold, 19882) Stiles and Goldberger, 1910 by scanning electron microscopy


Department of Patholobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada; 1Beleshögsvägen 25, 216 18 Malmö, Sweden; 2Thai Society for the Conservation of Wild Animals, 32 Prathum Court, 85/3-8 Soi Rajaprarop, Makkasan, Bangkok 10400, Thailand, E-mail: raccarreno@ucdavis.edu


Three Indian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Thailand we-re treated with mebendazole at a dose of 6-7 mg/kg body weight. Four days following treatment, fecal examinations were negative for nematode eggs in all elephants and nega-tive for fluke eggs in two of the animals. However, adult parasites were recovered from faeces from each of the ani-mals 36-72 hours after deworming. These included Mur-shidia falcifera (Cobbold, 1882) Lane 1915, m. neveu-le-mairei (Witenberg, 1925) Yorke and Maplestone, 1926, a Quilonia species, and the amphistome Pfenderius papail-latus (Cobbold, 1882) Stiles and Goldberger, 1910. The finding of P. papillatus constitutes a first record of this species in Thailand. Specimens of P. papillatus were exa-mined by scanning electron microscopy. In contrast to earlier descriptions of this species, no prominent papillae were found at the anterior end. Structures on the acetabu-lum that had previously been described as papillae were actually elevated pores that were spread over the acetabu-lum. These pores differ from all previous descriptions of P. papillatus and indicate a highly modified acetabulum in P. papillatus relative to other Pfenderius species.


HELMINTHOLOGIA, 38, 2:81-83, 2001

Histopathological study on the effect of Renicola heroni on the kidneys of giant heron Ardea goliath


Department of Parasitology and Department of Pathology Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt


Renicola heroni were encountered in the kidneys of free living giant heron Ardea goliath with the prevalence of 86.6 % following spontaneous death . The macroscopical examination revealed the presence of multiple nodules containing the adult parasites. Microscopically the kidneys showed various degenerative changes , necrosis and vasculitis of the renal blood vessels. Presence of numerous eggs in the blood vessels gives an indication that it can be transfered to other organs or being arrested as emboli in the blood vessels producing a serious problem in this birds.


HELMINTHOLOGIA, 38, 2:85-92, 2001

Digenean parasites of the European eel from estuaries in NW Spain

S. Outeiral, F. Alvarez, E. Paniagua, L. Leiro, M. L. Sanmartín

Laboratory of Parasitology, Institute of Food Investigation and Analyses, University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain, E-mail: mpduran@usc.es


Nine species of digeneans were found in 956 European eels captured in the estuaries of Arousa and Ferrol (NW Spain). These are Bucephalus polymorphus, Deropristis inflata, Helicometra fasciata, Podocotyle angulata, Derogenes varicus, Lecithaster gibbosus, Lecithochirium musculus, L. furcolabiatum and L. rufoviride. Eight were present in both estuaries, while L. gibbosus was present only in Ferrol. H. fasciata and P. angulata showed a significantly higher prevalence in Arousa and Ferrol, respectively. L. furcolabiatum and L. rufoviride differed significantly in mean abundance at the two sites and L. musculus in both abundance and prevalence. Of these species, four (L. musculus, B. polymorphus, P. angulata and H. fasciata) are common parasites of Anguilla and Conger. Of the remaining species, 3 are more host-specific (D. inflata is restricted to eels, L. rufoviride and L. furcolabiatum to eels and other anguilliforms), and two are generalists (D. varicus and L. gibbosus).


HELMINTHOLOGIA, 38, 2:93-97, 2001

Abundance and distribution of Anguillicola crassus (Nematoda) in eels Anguilla anguilla from Moulouya Estuary (Morocco)

I. Rahhou*, M. Melhaoui, R. Lecomte-Finiger1, S. Morand2, H. Chergui3

*Laboratoire d'Hydrobiologie et Ecologie Générale, Faculté des Sciences, Université Mohammed 1. Oujda (Maroc)1Laboratoire d’Ichtyoécologie Tropicale et Mediterranéenne – EPHE-CNRS ESA 8046, Université de Perpignan, Perpignan (France)2Centre de Biologie et d’Ecologie Tropicale et Méditerranéenne, UMR CNRS 5555, Université de Perpignan, Avenue de Villeneuve, 66860 Perpignan Cedex (France)3Laboratoire d’Hydrobiologie et Ecologie Générale, Faculté Dhar El Mehraz, Fčs (Maroc)


The first record of Anguillicola crassus in Morocco was made in 1994. In 1996, none of 76 eels examined was found to be affected. Four years later, the swim-bladder parasite was well established in Moulouya Estuary on the Mediterranean coast with 50 of 114 eels examined were infected. The prevalence and intensity of Anguillicola crassus infections in the swim-bladder of the European eel Anguilla anguilla are presented. Eel samples revealed a parasite prevalence ranging between 0 and 70 %, with a variation in mean intensity of infection of between 1 and 5.33 nematodes per infected host. The abundance varied between 0 and 2.4 per examined host. The results support the hypothesis proposed by previous workers that the parasite originally entered the Moulouya estuary via the commercial trade in live eels.


HELMINTHOLOGIA, 38, 2:99-103, 2001

Intermediate hosts of Gongylonema pulchrum Molin, 1857 (Nematoda, Gongylonematidae) in game farm pastures


Central Laboratory of Game Biology and Pathology, 5 Iskarsko Shose, 1528 Sofia, Bulgaria; 1Institute of Zoology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1 Tsar Osvoboditel Blvd., 1000 Sofia, Bulgaria; 2Central Laboratory of General Ecology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 2 Gagarin Street, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria; E-mail: bbg@ecolab.bas.bg


Three pastures used for moufflons (Ovis musimon) and fallow deer (Cervus dama) situated at an altitude of 500-900 m in the Rhodope Mountains, Bulgaria, were examined to determine the range of the intermediate hosts of Gongylonema pulchrum. In total, 309 beetles of 15 species of the family Scarabeidae were studied. Infection was found in 8 species: Sisyphus schaefferi, Caccobius schreberi, Onthophagus amyntas, O. fracticornis, O. lemur, O. ruficapillus, O. similis (new host record) and O. verticicornis. The highest prevalences were recorded in C. schreberi (40.0 %), S. schaefferi (28.6 %), O. verticicornis (26.1 %) and O. ruficapillus (22.8 %). Comparison with previous studies showed that almost all the species recorded in the game animal pastures had been reported as intermediate hosts in the lowland pastures where domesticated animals serve as final hosts. The main differences are the smaller number of scarabeid species occurring in the pastures in game farms and the lack of the Aphodiinae acting as intermediate hosts.


HELMINTHOLOGIA, 38, 2:105-109, 2001

Soil and plant nematode communities of two types of ecosystems


Parasitological Institute SAS Hlinkova 3, 040 01 Košice, Slovak Republic


Abundance of soil and plant nematodes and the nematode communities structure were compared in natural permanent grass ecosystems and regularly cultivated cereal agrosystems at four localities in East Slovakia. The mean number of genera and the abundance of nematodes were higher in cereals. Plant feeders were the dominant trophic group at all localities in both types of ecosystems. Helicotylenchus spp. were the most abundant plant parasitic nematodes with higher population densities on permanent grass stands. Tylenchorhynchus, Merlinius and Pratylenchus were more abundant on cereals. Bacterial feeders were the subdominant trophic group at the majority of the localities, the fungal feeders at the locality with acid environment. The least abundant trophic group were the predators. Ecological and nematode communities indices used for evaluation of the studied ecosystems indicated higher stability of the natural grass ecosystems.


HELMINTHOLOGIA, 38, 2:111-113, 2001

Occurrence of microfilariae from subfamily Onchocercinae in red and roe deer in Bieszczady Mountains

A. W. Demiaszkiewicz, J. Dróżdż, J. Lachowicz

W. Stefański Institute of Parasitology of the Polish Academy of Sciences ul. Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warszawa, Poland


In skin samples from red deer from Bieszczady Mountains were found microfilariae of 5 species: Onchocerca skrjabini, O. garmsi, O. flexuosa, O. jakutensis and Cutifilaria wenki, and in skin from roe deer 1 species - Dipetalonema rugosicauda. Extensiveness of infection O. skrjabini – 76 % has been the highest observed until now in this species in Poland. The finding of microfilariae of C. wenki is the fourth record in the world of this rare species.