Antifilarial glycosides of Streblus asper: effect on metabolism of adult Setaria cervi females S. N. Singh, D. Raina*, R. K. Chatterjee, A. K. Srivastava*1
Division of Parasitology and *Biochemistry, Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, IndiaSummary
Two glycosides i. e. asperoside and strebloside, isolated from a traditionally used medicinal plant Streblus asper, have been observed to possess promising macrofilaricidal activity against Setaria cervi females in vitro. These agents interfere with the glutathione metabolism of the adult filarial parasites which cause disturbance in various vital activities of the parasites that ultimately results in the death of the parasites.
HELMINTHOLOGIA, 35, 4: 179 - 183, 1998
Genetic variants of Echinococcus granulosus in Slovakia recorded by random amplification of polymorphic DNAL. Turcekova, V. Snabel, P. Dubinsky
Parasitological Institute SAS, Hlinkova 3, 040 01 Kosice, Slovak RepublicSummary
Knowledge of the existence of strain variation in E. granulosus is important in designing control strategies against these cestodes. To obtain a more complex view about the genetic heterogeneity of Echinococcus in the Slovak region, protoscoleces from pig and human were analysed by RAPD - PCR method. Total genomic DNA were examined using five arbitrary primers, two of which (5´GGTGACGCAG3´ and 5´ CCTTGACGCA3´) have been found suitable for discriminatory purposes. Two different DNA banding patterns (phenotype 1 and phenotype 2) were detected in E. granulosus from pig. Phenotype 1 has been characteristic of G7 genotype (pig strain), whereas phenotype 2 is indicative to be attributed to G1 genotype (cosmopolitan sheep strain). Based on DNA characters obtained, one human patient has been pressumably infected by pig strain. Amplification profile of the second patient has been different from both phenotypes.
HELMINTHOLOGIA, 35, 4: 185 - 188, 1998
Chromosome analysis of Rodentopis straminea (Cestoda: H y m e n o l e p i d i d a e) parasitizing wood mice (Apodemus spp.) in SpainM. SPAKULOVA, J. C. CASANOVA*
Parasitological Institute SAS, Hlinkova 3, 04001 Kosice, Slovak Republic, *Laboratori de Parasitologia, Facultat de Farmacia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avda Diagonal s/n, 08028 Barcelona, SpainSummary
The chromosomal complement of rodent tapeworm Rodentolepis straminea (Goeze, 1782) consists of six pairs relatively well distinguishable chromosomes (2n = 12). The 1st pair has subtelocentric while the 2nd pair metacentric type of structure. The latter is characterized by remarkable unstained pericentromeric region. The length of four smaller chromosome pairs decreases gradually. According to the centromere position, pairs 3 and 5 are submetacentric, pair 4 clearly subtelocentric and the smallest pair 6 is metacentric. The formula of the karyo type structure is n = 2m + 2sm + 2st. The mean total length of the haploid complement is 16.52 µm. A satellite is distinct in some prometaphase cells in one of the ho- mologues of the 1st pair.
HELMINTHOLOGIA, 35, 4: 189 - 195, 1998
Changes in cellular immunity of mice treated for larval toxocarosis with fenbendazoleE. Dvoroznakova, Z. Boroskova, P. Dubinsky, S. Velebny, O. Tomasovicova, B. Machnicka*
Parasitological Institute SAS, Hlinkova 3, Kosice 040 01, *Institute of Parasitology, PAS, Warsaw, PolandSummary
The proliferative response of splenic T and B lymphocytes, percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subpopulations and production of the peritoneal macrophage superoxide anion (O-2) were studied in healthy and Toxocara canis infected mice after anthelmintic treatment with fenbendazole. The drug was administered at a dose of 10 mg/kg b. w. twice a day for 5 days. Fenbendazole given to healthy (uninfected) mice stimulated the proliferative response of T and B cells to nonspecific polyclonal activators (ConA, LPS), however, partially inhibited the percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes. Production of O-2 increased only insignificantly. Infection of mice primarily inhanced the percentage of CD4+ T lymphocytes, compared with CD8+ cells. The treatment of infected mice considerably stimulated the proliferative response of B cells in comparison with T cells. The percentage of CD4+ T cells in spleen was moderately reduced after treatment while that of CD8+ increased significantly. Fenbendazole considerably activated the production of the peritoneal macrophage superoxide anion O-2 by day 24 after its last administration. The efficacy of the anthelmintic on the reduction of the migrating larvae count was 30.3 % in the muscles and 26 % in the brain.
HELMINTHOLOGIA, 35, 4: 197 - 201, 1998
The effect of different level of feed intake on therapeutical activity of pyrantel citrate against experimental Trichuris suis infection in pigsJ. Praslicka2, P. Juris2, H. Bjorn3, P. Nansen1, D. R. Hennessy1,4
1Danish Centre for Experimental Parasitology, Department of Veterinary Microbiology, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Bulowsvej 13, 1870 Frederiksberg C, Denmark; 2Parasitological Institute SAS, Hlinkova 3, 040 01 Kosice, Slovak Republic; 3Department of Pharmacology and Pathobiology, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Bulowsvej 13, 1870 Frederiksberg C, Denmark; 4CSIRO Division of Animal Production, McMaster Laboratory, Locked Bag 1, Blacktown, NSW 2148, AustraliaSummary
The level of feeding is known to influence the flow rate of digesta through gastrointestinal tract, affecting the time during which orally administered drug is present at absorptive sites of the intestine. Lower feed intake in this study was expected to prolong the digesta transit time and allow greater quantitative absorption in the small intestine. This should result in lower efficacy against parasites in the large intestine as less drug is projected to the colon. Thirteen pigs experimentally infected with Tri- churis suis were divided into 3 groups and given normal (group 1 and 3) or 50 % (group 2) amount of feed. Groups 1 and 2 were treated with pyrantel citrate (22 mg/kg). Although not statistically significant, the results of post mortem worm counts 8 days after treatment indicated that efficacy of the drug in group 2 fed a half diet was lower (22 %) compared with group 1 fed normal diet (39 %). Faecal egg counts showed similar reduction of efficacy in group 2 (32 % compared with 73 % in group 1).
HELMINTHOLOGIA, 35, 4: 203 - 208, 1998
Soil transmitted helminth parasites of humans in a city in southwestern NigeriaC. F. Mafiana, M. B. Sodipe, B. I. Koleoso
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria, Fax: 234-39-243045, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgSummary
An investigation was conducted to determine the prevalence and intensity of infection of soil-transmitted helminth parasites in children in Abeokuta, the capital city of Ogun State, Nigeria. Faecal examinations of 1060 children revealed a prevalence of 64.0 % for Ascaris lumbricoides, 21.9 % for Trichuris trichiura and 14.5 % for hookworm. Intensity of infection was measured indirectly by faecal egg counts (egg per gram of faeces) and directly by the expulsion of A. lumbricoides after treatment with levamisole. The mean (± SEM) egg count for A. lumbri- coides was 10912.66 ± 1002.56, T. trichiura 148.54 ± 20.75 and hookworm 114.70 ± 9.07. The mean (± SEM) worm burden for A. lumbricoides was 5.50 ± 0.50 worms per child. The frequency distribution was overdis- persed with a K-value of 0.32, and the relationship bet- ween parasite fecundity and worm burden did not indi- cate a density - dependent effect. Host age and sex were not significant factors with respect to the overall infection as well as A. lumbricoides infection, however younger children (6—9 years) were significantly more infected with T. trichiura (p<0.05), while older children (10—13 years) were more infected with hookworm (p<0.01). The study also showed a preponderance of A. lumbricoides (94.4 %) in the infected population over T. trichiura (34.2 %) despite their similar life cycles.
HELMINTHOLOGIA, 35, 4: 209 - 218, 1998
Parasite communities of Genypterus blacodes and G. brasiliensis (Pisces: O p h i d i i d a e) from ArgentinaN. H. SARDELLA*, M. F. AVENDANO, J. T.TIMI
Laboratorio de Parasitología. Departamento de Biología. Fac. de Cs. Exactas y Naturales. Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata. Funes 3250. (7600) Mar del Plata. Argentina. e-mail: email@example.com, Fax:54-023-753150SUMMARY
The parasite fauna of Genypterus blacodes (spotted kingklip) and G. brasiliensis (smooth kingklip) collected in different areas of the Argentine Shelf is described and quantified. The relationships of parasitism with length, sex and diet of hosts are analyzed. G. blacodes harboured the following taxa: Lecithochirium genypteri (Digenea), Anonchocephalus chilensis and Scolex polymorphus (Cestoda), Cucullanus genypteri, Anisakis sp., Contra caecum sp., Pseudoterranova decipiens and Hysterothylacium aduncum (Nematoda), Corynosoma sp. and Echinorhynchus sp. (Acanthocephala) and Chondracanthus genypteri and Sphyrion laevigatum (Copepoda). Parasite prevalence was 96.0 %. Parasites of G. brasiliensis (smooth kingklip) were: Myxobolus sp. and Ceratomyxa sp. (Myxozoa), L. genypteri, A. chilensis, Trypanorhyncha plerocerci larvae, Anisakis sp., Contracaecum sp., P. decipiens, H. aduncum, C. genypteri, Corynosoma sp., S. laevigatum and one C h o n d r a c a n t h i d a e species. Prevalence was 100 %. The parasites found in both kingklips were assigned to three categories: parasites specific at host species level, parasites specific at host genus and host family level and those non specific; phylogenetic and ecologic factors are analyzed in this sense. Comparisons of parasitic communities among G. blacodes and G. brasiliensis from Argentina and G. blacodes, G. chilensis and G. maculatus from Chile showed a greater similarity between G. blacodes from Atlantic and Pacific Oceans than among this species and the other kingklips, indicating the importance of phylogenetic fac- tors as determinant of the structure of these assemblages.
HELMINTHOLOGIA, 35, 4: 219 - 222, 1998
Studies on the occurrence of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) in the Slovak RepublicM. LISKOVA, D. STURHAN*
Parasitological Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Hlinkova 3, 040 01 Kosice, Slovak Republic; *Biologische Bundesanstalt fur Land- und Forstwirtschaft, Institut fur Nematologie und Wirbeltierkunde, Toppheideweg 88, D-48161 Munster, GermanySummary
Studies on the outdoor occurrence of root-knot nematodes in Slovakia revealed the presence of Meloidogyne in 20 of 114 samples collected from various biotopes in different regions of the country. Meloidogyne ardenensis, which is reported for the territory of the Slovak Republic for the first time, was found associated with natural river bank vegetation at two localities. Meloidogyne hapla was identified from several areas of the country associated with vegetables and sporadically in natural meadows, woodland and, together with M. ardenensis, with vegetation along river banks. Both spe- cies were found exclusively in light sandy or loamy-sandy soils.
HELMINTHOLOGIA, 35, 4: 223 - 226, 1998
Observations of the effect of Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection on the immune system in miceM. HALANOVA, P. BALENT, M. STEFKOVIC, A. EL NAAS, G. CSIZSMAROVA, V. HIPIKOVA, M. LEVKUTOVA, A. JUREINA, P. MASLEJ
University of Veterinary Medicine, Komenského 73, 041 81 Kosice, Slovak RepublicSummary
The effect of experimental infection with a microsporidia Encephalitozoon cuniculi on the immune system in BALB/c mice was observed. Of 48 mice, 24 were ino- culated with a protozoan parasite Encephalitozoon cuniculi and 24 ones served as a control. A single dose of 2.5 x 107 spores of the pathogen was applied intraperitoneally. On day 15 after infection, the serum samples of 6 in- fected and 6 control mice were examined by the method of indirect immunofluorescence (IFAT) and the peri- pheral blood leukocyte phagocytic activity was determined. The same procedure was used on days 30, 60 and 90 after infection. Antibodies against Encephalitozoon cuniculi were de- tectable already on day 15 after infection. Reached its peak in day 60, and then decreased gradually. In contrast, the phagocytic activity in infected mice was highest on day 15, and gradually decreased.
HELMINTHOLOGIA, 35, 4: 227 - 229, 1998
Influence of infection intensity of Hymenolepis diminuta WMS inbred line 1 on morphology of uterine proglottidesM. Stradowski
Department of General Biology and Parasitology, Medical School, Chalubinskiego 5, 02-004 Warsaw, PolandSummary
The number of eggs in uterine proglottides was significantly lower in Hymenolepis diminuta of the crowded infections of 44—48 tapeworms than when infections were of lower density (of 4—6 tapeworms). This situation probably results not only from the smaller volume of uterine proglottides in these tapeworms but also from other, as yet unknown factors. Supporting this conclusion is the large proportion (mean 50.9 %) of uterine prog- lottides containing no eggs, where the remaining similarly-sized proglottides in these tapeworms have 120.7 eggs each on average. In tapeworms from the low-density infections, uterine proglottides without eggs constituted only 1.0 % of the total, with the remainder having a mean of 1278.5 eggs each.