Proliferative response of T and B lymphocytes of two mouse strains treated for experimental larval toxocarosisE. Dvoroznakova, Z. Boroskova, P. Dubinsky, S. Velebny, O. Tomasovicova, B. Machnicka*
Parasitological Institute SAS, Hlinkova 3, Kosice 040 01; *Institute of Parasitology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, PolandSummary
The effect of liposomized albendazole on the proli- ferative response of splenic lymphocytes to T- and B- cell polyclonal activators (concanavalin A, lipopolysaccharide, pokeweed mitogen) was compared in inbred and non- inbred strains of mice with experimental toxocarosis. Dif ferences between the two strains consisted in a higher inhibition of the proliferative response of T and B lymphocytes and in its earlier onset in healthy inbred animals compared with non-inbred mice. In infected and treated mice, inhibition of T cells was higher in non-inbred than in inbred strain and the inhibited proliferative response of B lymphocytes was preceded by its stimulation. The variation coefficient of the T- and B- cell proliferative response was lower and less fluctuating in inbred (mean 3.0 %) than in non-inbred (mean 9.3 %) mice. The study strains of mice also exhibited differences in the drug anthelmintic efficacy on migrating larvae of Toxocara canis (inbred strain: muscles 41.5—60.8 %, brain 52.4—68.2 %; non- inbred strain muscles 29.1—50.7 %, brain 5.5—76.6 %). The results show differences in the immunomodulative ef- fect and anthelmintic efficacy of albendazole in mice with different genetic equipment.
HELMINTHOLOGIA, 34, 3: 127 - 139, 1997
Cercarial dermatitis in focus: schistosomes in the Czech RepublicL. Kolarova*, P. Horak**, J. Sitko***
*Department of Tropical Medicine, III. Clinic of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Faculty Hospital Bulovka, Studnickova 7, 128 00 Prague 2, Czech Republic; **Department of Parasitology, Charles University, Vinicná 7, 128 44 Prague 2, Czech Republic; ***Komenský Museum, Moravian Ornithologic Station, Horni namesti 1, 751 52 Prerov, Czech RepublicSummary
The study concerns the prevalence of schistosomes in intermediate and definitive hosts with a special attention to the occurrence of cercarial dermatitis in the Czech Republic. Concerning the examination of intermediate hosts, the study includes data obtained during the period of 1984—1996. The investigation of 53464 snails representing 12 species (Lymnaea stagnalis, L. palustris, L. cor- vus, Radix auricularia, R. peregra ovata, R. p. peregra, Anisus vortex, Physa acuta, Planorbarius corneus, Pla- norbis planorbis, Bathyomphalus contortus, Bythinia ten- taculata) revealed larval stages of Trichobilharzia szidati (in L. stagnalis, L. palustris and R. auricularia), T. franki (in R. auricularia) and Bilharziella polonica (in P. cor- neus). During the period of 1960—1995, a total of 2501 aquatic birds of 7 orders were examined and adult schis- tosomes of the species B. polonica (from Anas platyrhynchos, A. clypeata, A. querquedula, A. crecca, Aythya ferina, A. fuligula, Anser anser, Podiceps cristatus, Ardea cinerea), Dendritobilharzia pulverulenta (from Anas acuta, A. querquedula, A. platyrhynchos, Aythya ferina, Cygnus olor, Fulica atra, Rallus aquaticus), Gigantobilharzia acotylea (from Larus ridibundus) and Ornithobilharzia canaliculata (from Sterna hirundo) were found. A total of 131 cases of cercarial dermatitis in the period of 1992—1996 were revealed. The disease was diagnosed either by positive serological reaction or by clinical symptoms of patients with a history of swimming in the water bodies where larval stages of schistosomes were found. Cercariae of T. szidati belonged to the most fre- quent aetiological agents of the disease. The results are compared with those obtained in neighbouring European countries.
HELMINTHOLOGIA, 34, 3: 141 - 145, 1997
Antifilarial activity of a ß carboline analogueS. Bhatnagar, A. Agarwal*, N. Fatma, S. K. Agarwal*, R. K. Chatterjee
Divisions of Parasitology and *Medicinal Chemistry; Central Drug Research Institute; Lucknow 226001, IndiaSummary
There is no suitable drug available for the cure and control of lymphatic filariasis specially due to Wuchereria bancrofti. Diethylcarbamazine (DEC) has very little or no effect on adult or larval forms of the parasites and often produce severe side effects. The present study was conducted to evaluate a potential antifilarial compound 92/ 596 which exerted both macrofilaricidal and larvicidal actions. The compound showed 100 % adulticidal activity against Acanthocheilonema viteae in Mastomys coucha, at a dose of 50 mg/kg (i. p.) when given for 5 days and also showed 65.8 % protection against establishment of parasites when given in three doses at 50 mg/kg (i. p.) on day 0, +10 and +25 of infective exposure. The compound also showed 35.8 % effect on L4 stage at a dose of 250 mg/kg (p. o.). The compound thus provides a lead for the development of antifilarial agents.
HELMINTHOLOGIA, 34, 3: 147 - 153, 1997
Toxocara canis in mice: Are liposomes and immunomodulator able to enhance the larvicidal effect of the anthelmintic?S. Velebny, O. Tomasovicova, G. Hrckova, P. Dubinsky
Parasitological Institute SAS, Hlinkova 3, 040 01 Kosice, Slovak RepublicSummary
The efficacy of albendazole (ABZ) and liposomized ABZ combined with liposomized glucan against Toxocara canis larvae in the muscles and brain of mice was inves- tigated during the chronic phase of the experimental infection (from day 28th p. i.). A significant reduction of the larval count was recorded in the muscles and brain of mice treated with liposomized ABZ during five days (total doses 100, 150 and 350 mg.kg-1) in combination with liposomized glucan (one dose 5 mg.kg-1) compared to the mice treated with ABZ (total dose 100 mg.kg-1 b. w.). The efficacy of the preparations against larvae in the brain was almost twice higher than against larvae in the muscles. These results indicate the important role of liposomes in prolongation of the ABZ level in the body, what resulted in the enhancement of the drugs efficacy.
HELMINTHOLOGIA, 34, 3: 155 - 157, 1997
HELMINTHOLOGIA, 34, 3: 159 - 166, 1997
Variability of the mollusc Cernuella arigonis (Haas, 1929) ( H e l i c i d a e) in the Duero basin (Spain) using the nematode Muellerius capillaris (Mueller, 1889) (P r o t o s t r o n g y l i d a e) as a parasitological markerL. Castanon-Ordonez, A. Reguera-Feo, M. Cordero-Del-Campillo
Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Leon, 24071-Leon, SpainSummary
The infectivity and development of Muellerius capil laris were studied in 38 populations of Cernuella arigonis, each one coming from a different location. The results show the presence of two taxonomic categories of the mollusc in the Duero basin that might produce different epidemiological patterns, according to the significant differences in the number of the infective larval stage obtained.
HELMINTHOLOGIA, 34, 3: 167 - 171, 1997
Taxonomic deliberations on human and pig ascaridsJ. K. Macko, P. Dubinsky
Parasitological Institute SAS, Hlinkova 3, Kosice 040 01, Slovak Republic
Studies on human and pig ascarids have shown that A. lumbricoides and A. suum may be propagated either by direct infection with eggs or alternatively by changing their hosts. These may be paratenic hosts (e. g. earth- worms) or alternative intermediate hosts (rodents) in which, according to the literature, both the forms of Ascaris may develop into the pulmonary stage. Omnivo- rous pigs can therefore be infected after ingestion of earth- worms or rodents infected either with A. suum or A. lum- bricoides. Man can be alternatively infected with eggs of Ascaris from pigs while working in a garden fertilized with pig excrements or with larvae when consuming thermically untreated tissues of infected pigs. New facts about this way of propagation of human and pig ascarids may to a certain extent influence the evaluation of their taxonomic status, depending on the species concept used by a respective author. Moleculo-biological methods of research, however, have proved that sympatric populations of Ascaris in Guatemala are ecologically separated. Under the influence of these findings, systematists will probably incline towards the opinion that according to the biological concept this is the case of two taxa which can be attributed the character of "sibling species". This phenomenon will also have to be verified in other geographic regions.
HELMINTHOLOGIA, 34, 3: 173 - 174, 1997
On the possible free-living phase of the Ligula intestinalis plerocercoids (L i g u l i d a e)V. Barus*, M. Sebela**, M. Prokes*
*Institute of Landscape Ecology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Kvetna 8, 603 65 Brno; **Department of Zoology of the Moravian Museum, Zelny trh 6, 659 37 Brno, Czech RepublicSummary
A rupture of the body wall, and intrusion of the Ligula intestinalis plerocercoids into the aquatic environment was observed in extremely rare cases in the bream (Abramis brama). The survival of the parasite in the water is pos- sible for a short time (some days) and authors present the hypothesis of the existence of a possible free-living phase of the L. intestinalis plerocercoids and its importance in life cycle of these tapeworm.
HELMINTHOLOGIA, 34, 3: 177 - 189, 1997
Proceedings of the Sixth Czech and Slovak Helminthological Days held at Dolní Vistonice (Czech Republic) April 14—17, 1997The conference 6th Helminthological Days organized by the Helminthological Section of the Czech Parasitolo- gical Society, was held a usually at Dolní Vistonice in the lovely countryside of the south Moravia (CzR), April 14—17, 1997. A total of 57 Czech and Slovak helmintho- logists, including many students, participated on this meeting. In addition, four Austrian, one Mexican and one Polish colleagues attending this meeting. Most papers were devoted to fish helminths, their ecology, morphology and biology, several presentations re- ported new data from human and veterinary helminthology.