F. Bozic, A. Jasarevic1, A. Marinculic1, E. Durakovic1, Z. Kozaric2
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Veterinary Faculty, University of Zagreb, Heinzelova 55, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia, E-mail: Bozic@mavef.vef.hr, 1Department of Parasitology and Infectious diseases, Veterinary Faculty, University of Zagreb, Croatia; 2Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Veterinary Faculty, University of Zagreb, Croatia
The potentiation of parasitic infections is a recognized adverse effect of glucocorticoids after their prolonged ad-ministration. In the present study, however, the potential effects of a single small dose of glucocorticoids, dexame-thasone (DEX), on suppression of the jejunal goblet cells (GC) hyperplasia, in relation to the establishment and per-sistence of a primary helminth infection, was investigated using the Trichinella spiralis/mouse model. One day prior to infection with T. spiralis, C57BL mice were treated with DEX at dose 0.1 mg/kg and necropsied for GC enumera-tion at 3, 4, 5 and 7 days post-infection (p.i.) and for adult worm counts from the small intestines at 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, 14 and 21 days p.i., respectively. In addition, larval worm counts from the musculature were performed at day 35 p.i. DEX-unpretreated T. spiralis-infected mice served as con-trol. The control mice were necropsied on the same days as the tested group mice. DEX-pretreatment of mice infected with T. spiralis was found to transiently abolishes periodic-acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive GC hyperlasia normally obser-ved following T. spiralis infection. By contrast, DEX cau-sed elevation of Alcian blue (ALB)-positive GC number during the T. spiralis-infection of C57BL mice. These fin-dings were confirmed by a second DEX injection on day 5 p.i. Moreover, DEX-pretreatment significantly delayed adult parasite elimination from the small intestine and the mice injected with DEX harboured significantly more lar-val worms in the musculatue than the uninjected hosts. These results suggest that DEX, administered shortly be-fore or early after experimental infection of mice with T. spiralis, could potentiate susceptibility of host to trichinel-losis, in part, in association with the suppression of PAS-positive GC hyperplasia. This also indicates that acute ad-ministration of DEX, even at the lowest dose, may induce long-lasting consequences detrimental to the infected host.
I. D. Papanin Institute of Biology of Inland Waters, Russian Academy of Sciences, Borok, Yaroslavl Prov. 152742, Russia, e-mail:email@example.com
pH dynamics in the incubation medium and secretion of lactic acid by Ligula intestinalis plerocercoids from the bo-dy cavity of bream from the Rybinsk reservoir were stu-died. Morphometric parameters of L. intestinalis plerocer-coids influenced their physiological and biochemical cha-racteristics. During in vitro incubation of plerocercoids, medium pH decreased. Secretion of lactic acid, being one of the major end-product of carbohydrate metabolism in L. intestinalis plerocercoids, was shown to depend on glucose presence in the medium over long incubations. The rate of lactate production eventually fell during the incubation. Secretion of lactic acid by L. intestinalis plerocercoids into the medium did not greatly influence its content in body cavity. A gradual decrease in lactate secretion rate cor-responds with a decrease in rates of medium pH changes, because lactate production is the cause of pH alterations.
HELMINTHOLOGIA, 37, 1:15-18, 2000Concentrations of some heavy metals in Ligula intestinalis plerocercoids (Cestoda) and Philometra ovata (Nematoda) compared to some their hosts (Osteichthyes)
F. Tenora, V. Barus*, S. Kracmar, J. Dvoracek**
MendelUniversity of Agriculture and Forestry, Zemědělská 1, 613 00 Brno, Czech Republic; *Institute of Vertebrate Biology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Květná 8, 603 65 Brno, Czech Republic; **Institute for Service and Business, Department of Ecology and Chemistry, 679 01 Skalice nad Svitavou, Czech Republic
Two helminth species (Ligula intestinalis, Philometra ova-ta) from the body cavity of three cyprinid fishes (A. brama, R. rutilus, B. bjoerkna) were analyzed for their heavy me-tal (Pb, Cr, Cd) levels using the atomic absorption spectro-metry. The heavy metal concentrations in the parasites were com-pared with those in fish muscle. The Pb, Cr and Cd levels in L. intestinalis plerocercoids were 15 x , 6 x and 2.6 x, respectively, higher than those in fish muscle. The Pb, Cr and Cd levels in P. ovata (adult females) were 106 x, 43 x and 119 x, respectively, higher than those in fish muscle. Compared with L. intestinalis plerocercoids, the Pb, Cr and Cd concentrations in P. ovata were higher. With identical or very similar concentrations of heavy metals in different species of fishes, significant differences in the heavy metal concentration values were registered in L. intestinalis plerocercoids and in P. ovata. The fish species appurtenance did not affect more distinctly the heavy metal concen-trations in muscle.
HELMINTHOLOGIA, 37, 1:19-22, 2000Complications of ocular larval toxocarosis in 5-year-old child and their surgical treatment J. Kincekova, K. Reiterova, T. Juhas1
Parasitological Institute SAS, Hlinkova 3, 040 01 Kosice, Slovak Republic, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org ; 1Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital, Tr. SNP 1, 040 66 Kosice, Slovak Republic
A case of severe unilateral visual deterioration with signs of vitreous opacity, subluxated lens and loss of the right eye vision in 5-year-old child is presented. These visual changes occurred after a 3-year duration of visceral larval toxocarosis that was clinically diagnosed and serologically confirmed as early as in the second year of the child's life.
HELMINTHOLOGIA, 37, 1:23-27, 2000Capillaria philippinensis - a human intestinal nematode newly introduced to Upper Egypt
R. M. KHALIFA, A. A. SAKLA, A. A. Hassan
Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt
A twenty nine year old house wife from EI-Welydia region, who never left Assiut, presented with chronic watery offensive diarrhoea, severe abdominal cramping colicky pain, repeated vomiting and rapid loss of weight within six months. Ultrasonography revealed mild ascites and a small stone in the neck of the gall bladder. Eggs of Capillaria philippinensis were for the first time recovered from Upper Egypt by direct smears. Unfertilized eggs were recognized for the first time and were found to differ morphologically from fertilized eggs. Trials to infect laboratory rats through swallowing of embryonated eggs proved unsuccessful.
HELMINTHOLOGIA, 37, 1:29-33, 2000Seasonal variations in the occurrence and maturation of the nematode Rhabdochona kidderi in Cichlasoma nigrofasciatum of the Amacuzac River, Mexico
J. M. Caspeta-Mandujano1,2, F. Moravec2, M. A. Delgado-Yoshino1, G. Salgado-Maldonado31Centre for Biological Research, Autonomous University of Morelos State, Av. Universidad No. 1001, Col. Chamilpa, C.P. 62210, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico; 2Institute of Parasitology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Branišovská 31, 370 05 České Budějovice, Czech Republic; 3Institute of Biology, National Autonomous University of Mexico, A.P. 70-153, 04510 México, D.F., Mexico Summary
The seasonal dynamics of the occurrence and maturation of Rhabdochona kidderi in its definitive host, Cichlasoma nigrofasciatum (Günther), are investigated. The results are based on monthly samples of fish (a total of 520 fishes were examined) collected in the Amacuzac River (locality "El Chisco"), State of Morelos, Mexico, from February 1996 to February 1997. The nematodes occurred in fish throughout the study period, with the highest values of pre-valence and mean intensity in April and June, respectively. Gravid female nematodes with mature eggs were present throughout the year, with the lowest occurrence in September. These observations represent the first data on the sea-sonality of a Rhabdochona Railliet, 1916 species from a tropical region.
HELMINTHOLOGIA, 37, 1:35-41, 2000Morphological observations on Retinometra longistylosa (Tseng-Shen, 1932) (Hymenolepididae), with an emphasis on the male copulatory apparatus and comments on the validity of Retinometra Spassky, 1955
J. K. Macko, V. Hanzelova, A.Mackova1Parasitolocal Institute SAS, Hlinkova 3, 040 01 Kosice, Slovak Republic, e-mail: email@example.com; 1Department of Experimental Botany and Genetics, Faculty of Scienes, P. J. Safarik University, Manesova 23, 041 54 Kosice, Slovak Republic; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The morphology of Retinometra longistylosa (Tseng-Shen, 1932), a parasite of Anser fabalis (Lath., 1787), recorded for the first time in the territory of Slovakia, has been described. Morphological structures of male distal ducts and their configuration on the protrusion in proglottides of different age suggest that the dilated portion of the fully evaginated bottle-shaped unarmed cirrus is embraced by a spinous ma-le canal ad hoc called praeputium cirri, described for the first time. The overall size of the cirrus with praeputium is 102-121 x 44-71µm. In 1.2 mm wide proglottides the cirrussac is 2.08 mm long. The stylet is about 1.2 times lon-ger than the cirrus-sac. The funnel-shaped copulatory part of the vagina (61-85 x 44-54 µm) has a granular internal wall. Furthermore, the taxonomy of R. longistylosa is discussed in relation to the recent concept on the genus Cladogynia Baer, 1937.
HELMINTHOLOGIA, 37, 1:43-45, 2000The tubenose goby (Proterorhinus marmoratus: Perciformes) as paratenic host of the nematode Anguillicola crassus (Dracunculoidea) B. Koubková, V. Baruš1 Department of Zoology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno, Czech Republic; E-mail: email@example.com, 1Institute of Vertebrate Biology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Květná 8, 603 65 Brno, Czech Republic
The tubenose goby (Proterorhinus marmoratus) was found as a new paratenic host of the Anguillicola crassus infec-tive larvae in the Czech Republic. The values of preva-lence (6.10 %), intensity of infection (1-4 larvae), and abundance (0.116) are extremely low. A description of the larvae and documentation of determining features are added. The cau-ses of low infections of this paratenic host are discussed.
HELMINTHOLOGIA, 37, 1:47-51, 2000The development of Dicheilonema rheae (Nematoda: Diplotriaenoidea) in the intermediate host
E. VAKARENKO, Y. KUZMIN
Department of Parasitology, Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
15, Bogdan Khmelnitsky street, Kiev - 30, 252601, Ukraine; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The larval development of the nematode Dicheilonema rheae, parasite of nandu (Rhea americana) in the interme-diate orthopteran hosts was studied experimentally. The development of larvae to the infective stage lasted 21-23 days at 22-25oC. The first moult occurred on days 8-10 after hatching, the development of second-stage larvae was relatively short and lasted 3-4 days and the third-stage lar-vae developed to infective stage during about 10 days. In-vestigation of insects in "Askania-Nova" zoo in 1992-1995 showed that 15 orthopteran species could harbour the lar-vae of D. rheae. Twelve of them belong to the family Acrididae and 3 belong to Tettigoniidae. The parasite showed no signs of specificity to any species of intermediate hosts investigated.
HELMINTHOLOGIA, 37, 1:53-, 2000Effect of anaerobically digested pig slurry from lagoon on soil and plant nematode communities in experimental conditions
B. VALOCKA, P. DUBINSKY, I. PAPAJOVA, M. SABOVA
Parasitological Institute SAS, Hlinkova 3, 040 01 Kosice, Slovak Republic
Effect of anaerobically digested pig slurry on the structure of free-living and plant parasitic nematode communities of natural grass stands and sown grass monoculture was examined in experimental conditions. The application of slurry influenced the proportion of trophic groups of nematodes. Reduction of plant parasitic nematodes was found on manured plots of both types of grass stands, regardless of slurry doses. At natural grass stands the proportion of plant feeders reached 32.6-45.8 % (vs 60.3 % at control) at sown grass monoculture it was 48.9-55.6 % vs 62.7 %. The proportion of bacterial feeders increased after manuring. Stimulating effects on the nematodes of omnivores and predators were also found. Ecological para-meters based on trophic and community levels showed positive effects of anaerobically digested pig slurry on the soil environment.